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CBD Oil of Cannabis Cannabidiol Oil
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of at least 113 active cannabinoids identified in cannabis. It is a major phytocannabinoid, accounting for up to 40% of the plant's extract. CBD is considered to have a wide scope of potential medical applications - due to clinical reports showing the lack of side effects, particularly a lack of psychoactivity (as is typically associated with THC), and non-interference with several psychomotor learning and psychological functions.
Dravet syndrome is a rare form of epilepsy that is difficult to treat. It is a catastrophic form of intractable epilepsy that begins in infancy. Initial seizures are most often prolonged events and in the second year of life other seizure types begin to emerge. A number of high profile and anecdotal reports have sparked interest in treatment of Dravet syndrome with cannabidiol.
Some cannabis/hemp extract preparations containing CBD are marketed as dietary supplements and claim efficacy against Dravet syndrome. One such preparation is marketed under the tradename Charlotte's Web Hemp Extract.
GW Pharmaceuticals is seeking FDA approval to market a liquid formulation of pure plant-derived CBD, under the trade name Epidiolex (containing 99% cannabidiol and less than 0.10% ?9-THC) as a treatment for Dravet syndrome. Epidiolex was granted fast-track status and is in late stage trials following positive early results from the drug.
A 2014 review stated that cannabidiol has been claimed, anecdotally, to be of benefit in helping people with epilepsy. Information in the review stated that there is no established mechanism of action and the lack of high-quality evidence in this area precluded conclusions being drawn.
A 2016 review states that because of the poor quality of available data, "no conclusions can be drawn" about the effectiveness of cannabidiol as an epilepsy treatment.
There is tentative evidence that CBD had an anti-psychotic effect, but research in this area is limited.
CBD safety in humans has been studied in multiple small studies, suggesting that it is well tolerated at doses of up to 1500 mg/day (p.o.) or 30 mg (i.v.).<Actinic:Variable Name = '21'/>
Cannabidiol has very low affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors but acts as an indirect antagonist of these receptors. While one would assume that this would cause cannabidiol to reduce the effects of THC, it may potentiate THC's effects by increasing CB1 receptor density or through another CB1 receptor-related mechanism. Cannabidiol may also extend the duration of the effects of THC via inhibition of the cytochrome P450 CYP3A and CYP2C enzymes.
Cannabidiol has been found to act as an antagonist of the GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen. It has also been shown to act as a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, and this action may be involved in the antidepressant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol. It is an allosteric modulator of the µ and d-opioid receptors as well. Cannabidiol's pharmacological effects have additionally been attributed to PPAR? agonism and intracellular calcium release.
Research suggests that CBD may exert some of its pharmacological action through its inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which may in turn increase the levels of endocannabinoids, such as anandamide, produced by the body. It has also been speculated that some of the metabolites of CBD have pharmacological effects that contribute to the biological activity of CBD.
There is preclinical evidence to suggest that cannabidiol may reduce THC clearance, modestly increasing THC's plasma concentrations resulting in a greater amount of THC available to receptors, increasing the effect of THC in a dose-dependent manner. Despite this, the available evidence in humans suggests no significant effect of CBD on THC plasma levels.
Nabiximols (USAN, trade name Sativex) is an aerosolized mist for oral administration containing a near 1:1 ratio of CBD and THC. The drug was approved by Canadian authorities in 2005 to alleviate pain associated with multiple sclerosis. Epidiolex, a drug with cannabidiol as its active pharmaceutical ingredient, received orphan drug status in the United States for treatment of Dravet syndrome in July 2015.
Epidiolex is an oil formulation of CBD extracted from the cannabis plant undergoing clinical trials for refractory epilepsy syndromes.
Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as pentane. At room temperature, it is a colorless crystalline solid. In strongly basic media and the presence of air, it is oxidized to a quinone. Under acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC. The synthesis of cannabidiol has been accomplished by several research groups.
Cannabis produces CBD-carboxylic acid through the same metabolic pathway as THC, until the last step, where CBDA synthase performs catalysis instead of THCA synthase.
The Secret Ingredient
The Secret Ingredient: Cannabidiol (CBD) Your Best Choice for Cannabis Oil
Green Roads uses a pharmaceutical-grade cannabidiol that is extracted from the industrial hemp plant. This allows our products to be legal in all 50 states and creates no legal or regulatory hurdles surrounding Cannabis.
Phytocannabinoids are the herbal, natural, and classical cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant.
There are over 60 cannabinoids that have been isolated from the plant.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol (CBD) and Cannabinol (CBN) are the most prevalent.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is not psychoactive. It has been noted that CBD acts as an antagonist to THC and therefore changes the psychoactive effects of THC. THC works primarily on the CB1 receptor whereas CBD works primarily on the CB2 receptor with little effect on CB1 receptor
What is CBD?
CBD is an abbreviation for cannabidiol, a naturally-occurring cannabinoid component found in cannabis that comprises up to 40% of the plant. Cannabidiol is not known to cause psychoactive effects. After THC (?9-tetrahydrocannabinol), CBD is the most studied natural cannabinoid. According to many researchers, CBD may be the single most important cannabinoid ever discovered.
Are THC and CBD the same thing?
No, they are different compounds. CBD and THC are both cannabinoids, but THC is the cannabinoid that gets you high or stoned. CBD is not psychoactive like THC, meaning it wont get you high.
How does Cannabidiol work?
In the last 20 years, a natural cannabinoid receptor system has been discovered in the human body. It is by binding to these receptors that cannabinoids produce their pharmacological effects. There are two types of cannabinoid receptors in humans, CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are present in the brain and spinal cord and in certain peripheral tissues. CB2 receptors are found primarily in immune tissues.
Will CBD help with me with my illness?
Due to federal regulations, we cannot make claims about whether or not CBD will help with specific ailments. We do, however, recommend that you conduct your own research.
Can I get high from CBD products?
Our CBD comes from carefully-cultivated hemp plantsnot marijuanawhich is why it is legal for us to use this. Our supplier spent years developing special cultivars of the hemp that produce naturally high levels of CBD and only trace amounts of THC, the psychoactive compound that gives marijuana users the high feeling.
How is Hemp Different from Marijuana?
Hemp is not marijuana and will not get you high. Hemp or industrial hemp is a commonly used term for cannabis indica plant strains that contain very low levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and are used for its fiber and seeds.
Green Roads of Florida LLC CBD LINE is 50-State Legal
Green Roads of Florida LLC CBD (Cannabidiol) products are legal in all 50 states, the US territories, as well as many countries around the world.
CBD has been well researched and shown to have a wide range of benefits to individuals, such as anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-seizure, etc. These health benefits attributed to CBD are separate and distinct from products which also have significant amounts of THC. A significant market has developed surrounding
CBD products which have natural trace amounts of THC.
CANNABIDIOL (CBD) IS LEGAL IN THE USA ! Keep Reading
9th Circuit Court of Appeals Ruling (2004)
In the 2004 9th Circuit Court ruling between the Hemp Industries Association (HIA) and the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the Court ruled that cannabinoids contained within industrial hemp were naturally occurring and outside the regulatory scope of the DEA and the Controlled Substance Act (CSA), even if they
contained trace amounts of THC.
The stipulation of importance was that they hemp had to be processed from 1) mature, 2) male and female plants (seed producing), and 3) be processed from the whole plant material. The ruling clearly states that material processed similarly to how marijuana is grown from concentrated resins of female plants from buds is not included in the
hemp exemption from the CSA. It would still be classified as marijuana, and therefore any material containing CBD or THC at any level would be treated as illegal. This ruling does not stipulate a specific legal limit of THC in the industrial hemp.
Agricultural Act of 2014 Sec 7606
The federal Agricultural Act of 2014 Sec 7606 Legitimacy of Industrial Hemp Research states that individual states can authorize pilot programs on the research on Industrial Hemp providing the hemp has a THC level under 0.3%. This 0.3% THC definition specifically applies to hemp grown in the US under this specific law. The law doesnt
seem to allow for hemp grown under this pilot research premise to be sold.
The Agricultural Act of 2014 defines industrial hemp as an extract from any part of the plant as long as it falls under the 0.3% level, and it broadens the exception for stalk and seed from hemp plants to include the possibility of extraction of resins from buds of marijuana type high-CBD strains. Furthermore, each state is taking this federal law,
and further defining and limiting the application state by state. But in and of itself, the does not allow for interstate commerce of these industrial hemp products.
CBD comes from two main sources: 1) strains of marijuana plants with high-CBD, or 2) from legal, commercially grown hemp plants. Both are varieties of Cannabis, but they are grown in different ways, for different purposes, and each one comes with its own legal status.
Marijuana CBD Strains Under the 2014 Agricultural Bill
Marijuana has two main constituents THC which is the psychoactive component, and CBD which is the balancing constituent to THC. Each strain of marijuana has relative percentages of these two components. Recently, given the changes in market demand for CBD, marijuana growers have hybridized several strains of High-CBD Low-THC
plants. More will be undoubtedly be on the way.
While these growers may try to classify these products as Industrial Hemp based on the low THC levels under 0.3%, it doesnt take away from the fact that these plants are grown like marijuana plants where female only plants are used, and only the immature buds are harvested and processed. The legal definitions defined in the court rulings specify not only the level of THC as critical to the definition of Commercial Hemp, but also the type of plant, parts of the plant that are used, etc.
If you have a grow operation, where only female plants are present with absolutely no male plants allowed, the female plants are kept in perpetual bud production through the entire life cycle. The plants are hybridized for flower production, and they grow lower with less stalk production and never produce seeds. This new approach to growing hemp, where marijuana plants are hybridized for High-CBD Low-THC production, produces little in the way of fiber and no seeds at all.
These hemp plants arent commercial hemp at all. They are indistinguishable from marijuana plants. True hemp plants have been planted for both the seeds and the stalks, and as a result male and female plants are allowed to grow side by side, resulting in flowering plants brimming with hemp seeds. In the marijuana plantations, the female plants remain un-pollenated, and the flowers continue to enlarge and the plant focuses its energy on cannabinoid resin production instead of seed production.
Commercial Hemp CBD Strains Under the 2004 Circuit Court Ruling
CBD oil that comes from commercial hemp plants, like the products found at Dose of Nature are a different story. Our CBD material is sourced from European certified commercial hemp strains which are grown for both fiber and seed production. Farms have both male and female plants growing, and the CBD oils are extracted from the whole plant material. In the Marijuana CBD plantations, they focus on the extraction from the buds alone.
Foreign-sourced CBD paste extracted in the proper manner can be imported into the US under existing tariff codes. While some of the original materials from overseas may have naturally occurring THC levels slightly above 0.3%, typically the final products are diluted to fall well below the 0.3% THC concentration defined in the Agricultural Act of 2014 to be safe.
It is abundantly clear and adjudicated that CBD processed and imported in compliance with the 2004 ruling is legal and acknowledged by the DEA. This is the method that Green Roads of Florida LLC strictly follows to provide CBD products, where the hemp oil is considered to be a dietary supplement by the FDA.
The real question that may have to be decided in the future is whether or not CBD produced from the resin of buds from the female plants will be considered legal for interstate sales. The 2004 ruling specifically exempts the resin products, saying they are subject to the Controlled Substance Act. The Agricultural Bill of 2004 makes it appear legal, as long as the products have less than 0.3%, but interstate sales of those products is questionable.
There are products coming on the market from US sources of high-CBD strains of marijuana, and while their status appears illegal for the time being, there might be some prosecutorial discretion being applied to whether or not the DEA will pursue these products and companies distributing them.
To be clear, Green Roads products are naturally occurring and extracted from European Union certified hemp strains grown to exacting organic standards. It is produced from the whole plant of male and female plants, and imported into the US under authorized tariff codes. The facility in the EU is registered with the FDA. Our products all have significantly less than 0.3% THC by weight. Green Roads of Florida products contain 0% THC and is absolutely committed to compliance with the laws and regulations of the US and international community.
Hope this helps clear any confusion :)